[12], A 2008 Cochrane Collaboration meta-analysis of previous studies concluded that evidence exists of "a significant benefit in symptom control and physiologic outcomes" for an extract of hawthorn used as an adjuvant in treating chronic heart failure. A closely related species, Crataegus cuneata (Japanese hawthorn, called sanzashi in Japanese) is used in a similar manner. Since the reign of King James I, it has been a Christmas custom to send a sprig of Glastonbury thorn flowers to the Sovereign, which is used to decorate the royal family's dinner table. The name "hawthorn" was originally applied to the species native to northern Europe, especially the common hawthorn C. monogyna, and the unmodified name is often so used in Britain and Ireland. It typically thrives in Full Sun and has a 12-24 Inches growth rate per year. It's known for its lobed, green leaves and attractive bark (much like an apple tree), and the branches of most varieties are thorny. Botanical name: Crataegus. On Manitoulin Island, Ontario, some red-fruited species are called hawberries. In Iran, the fruits of Crataegus (including Crataegus azarolus var. C. laevigata ‘Crimson Cloud’ is an English hawthorn with bright red flowers and fine-textured leaves. Hawthorn Trees 1 Hawthorn Trees 2 Hawthorn Trees, Facts & Detailed Information on the Hawthorn Tree. Seeds require stratification and take one or two years to germinate. [36], Although it is commonly stated that hawthorns can be propagated by cutting, this is difficult to achieve with rootless stem pieces. praecox), which flowers both in December and in spring, were formerly highly valued in England, on account of the legend that the tree was originally the staff of Joseph of Arimathea.[25]. Common in hedgerows, these shrubs and small trees are tough and hardy enough to thrive in a number of garden situations. Though classified as small trees, they have a tendency to send up suckers, which leads to multiple trunks or creates a large shrub if not pruned. The fruits of North America's Crataegus greggiana are made into preserves. In South Korea, a liquor called sansachun (산사춘) is made from the fruits. Robert Graves, in his book The White Goddess,[5] traces and reinterprets many European legends and myths in which the whitethorn (hawthorn), also called the May-tree, is central. I remember the kitchen as being large and airy. The leaves grow spirally arranged on long shoots, and in clusters on spur shoots on the branches or twigs. Noteworthy Characteristics. It is said that American legend Paul Bunyan used the Washington hawthorn… [28] Lore has it that it is very unlucky to cut the tree at any time other than when it is in bloom; however, during this time, it is commonly cut and decorated as a May bush (see Beltane). The Kutenai people of northwestern North America used red and black hawthorn fruit for food. piperi. The hawthorn is an species of sturdy tree that is widespread throughout the Western world. The clusters of flowers, often colorful fruits, and manageable size endear hawthorns to landscapers, and many varieties appear in cultivation, including some specially bred for landscape use. Potted Tree [citation needed]. After flowers in colors like white, pink, lavender, and red appear in the spring, small red or orange fruit will grow in the summer and often persist into late winter--a single tree … It fits perfectly into an informal or rural garden, and it can also be clipped into a dense, secure hedge around your property. Crataegus crus-galli var. The leaves of the hawthorn are small, dark green and toothed or lobed. This native American tree is ideal for a smaller garden, or for background in a larger one. Its beautiful flowers, sharp thorns and hedge-like qualities have made it popular throughout the ages. Avoid pesticides, which kill natural aphid predators such as lady beetles and lacewings. This is the largest of … One drawback to growing th… Native to eastern North America, hawthorn is a showy, small tree that breaks into clouds of white flowers in spring, followed by vivid fall color, and long-lasting red winter fruits. In its natural environment, hawthorn trees are an important source of sustenance for wildlife. The Hawthorn tree has white flowers similar to apple blossoms that attracts butterflies and beneficial insects. Each flower produces a seed, and from the seed, … Fireblight, a bacterial disease that afflicts a number of fruit trees, gives hawthorn a scorched appearance and can kill the tree if left untreated. Oregon State University Extension: Hawthorn (Crataegus), University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources: Hawthorn—Crataegus Spp., Family Rosaceae (Rose Family), Birds and Blooms: Top Ten Berries for Birds, University of Florida School of Forest Resources and Conservation: Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.). Fireblight, most prevalent when hawthorn is planted near apple or pear orchards, often occurs when hot, dry weather is followed by humid conditions such as rain or hail. The original tree was destroyed in the sixteenth century during the English Reformation, but several cultivars have survived. During the British Agricultural Revolution in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, hawthorn saplings were mass propagated in nurseries to create the new field boundaries required by the Inclosure Acts. Lavalle hawthorn grows in … Blight control products containing copper are sometimes effective. A reasonable number is estimated to be 200 species.[9]. The Crimson Cloud Hawthorn is another great tree to put in your arsenal of small tough colorful landscape varieties. Other Common Hawthorn Names: Virginia or Maple-leaved Hawthorn, also refered to as thornapple, May-tree, whitethorn, or hawberry. They produce attractive white blooms in clusters, in late spring to early summer. All have excellent spring blossom displays, and most have attractive autumn fruitlet colours. The fruits of Crataegus mexicana are known in Mexico as tejocotes and are eaten raw, cooked, or in jam during the winter. Some botanists in the past recognised 1000 or more species,[39] many of which are apomictic microspecies. The Washington hawthorn (C. phaenopyrum) is famous for its red autumn colour and its abundant clusters of orange-red fruits that persist on the twigs well into winter; it is somewhat susceptible to rust but is otherwise a durable and much-used ornamental. The Hawthorn is an attractive large shrub or small tree. Makes an … Hawthorn is distinguished by its sharp, woody thorns and serrated leaves. Hawthorns provide food and shelter for many species of birds and mammals, and the flowers are important for many nectar-feeding insects. Also known as midland hawthorn, woodland hawthorn, or mayflower, this European native is … Scale isn't always recognized as an insect, as the pests are covered by waxy shells that look like yellow, black or brown bumps. With masses of pollen-rich spring flowers followed by autumn berries (haws), they provide food and shelter for a range of wildlife. Similar to other ornamental hawthorn species and often forms hybrids that have inter… The relatively thornless hybrid Lavalle hawthorn (Crataegus x lavallei) has lustrous green leaves, large orange-red fruits, and bronze-red fall foliage. The name is now also applied to the entire genus and to the related Asian genus Rhaphiolepis. There are so many different types of hawthorn trees that it’s difficult to choose just one. Crataegus species are shrubs or small trees, mostly growing to 5–15 m (16–49 ft) tall,[9] with small pome fruit and (usually) thorny branches. Aphids are tiny, sap-sucking insects that gather in masses on the undersides of the leaves. Haws are important for wildlife in winter, particularly thrushes and waxwings; these birds eat the haws and disperse the seeds in their droppings. The Washington Hawthorn Tree grows well in USDA Hardiness Zones 4-7. The gray or reddish-brown bark of the hawthorn tree provides texture to the garden, and some varieties turn a vibrate shade of orange-bronze in autumn. [11] The young leaves and flower buds, which are also edible, are known as "bread and cheese" in rural England. [37], The number of species in the genus depends on taxonomic interpretation. Robins sometimes line the branches in mid- to late winter, harvesting the fruits. Small, yellow or red apple-like fruit, often called thorn apples or haws, ripen in autumn. [9], Seedlings of Crataegus monogyna have been used to graft multiple species on the same trunk, such as pink hawthorn, pear tree, and medlar, the result being trees which give pink and white flowers in May and fruits during the summer. Fruit is a round, crimson berry that often persists into late winter 6. The fruits, which are called 山楂 shān zhā in Chinese, are also used to produce jams, jellies, juices, alcoholic beverages, and other drinks; these could in turn be used in other dishes (for instance, many older recipes for Cantonese sweet and sour sauce call for shānzhā jam). The Washington Hawthorn Tree does well or is tolerant in Well-Drained Clay, Loamy, Acidic, Alkaline soil. She is an Oregon State University Master Gardener and Master Naturalist and holds a Master of Fine Arts in creative nonfiction writing. They are used to make many kinds of Chinese snacks, including haw flakes and being coated in sugar syrup and put on a stick tanghulu. In spring small white or in rarer cases pink or red flowers appear in clusters, followed by small red apple-shaped fruit in autumn. The supposition that the tree was the source of Jesus's crown of thorns doubtless gave rise around 1911 to the tradition among the French peasantry that it utters groans and cries on Good Friday, and probably also to the old popular superstition in Great Britain and Ireland that ill luck attended the uprooting of hawthorns. This unique sweet and flavorful fruit is delicious eaten fresh, dried, stewed, and made into candy. Once full grown they can reach a height of 15-20 Feet and 15-20 Feet in spread. It's a medium-sized tree, 20 to 30 feet tall and 15 to 20 feet wide, suitable as a street or specimen tree. The vast majority of types have branches covered in thorns, which range from under and inch to 3 inches long and all produce pome fruits. Fireblight are potential problems but this species tends to have few to no thorns genus to... 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