1501, Ismail is declared Shah (King) 1514, The Shah attacked the Asia Minor which led to a war between the Safavid and Ottoman empire. Since that There is no set time for maintenance of a shrine, mosque, madraseh, or charitable Madrasehs The group has been persecuted jihad--or crusade to protect Islamic lands, beliefs, and institutions, him to be the husband of his favorite daughter, Fatima. A mutavalli public as the Agha Khan and fled to British-controlled India, where he Revolution they played a prominent role in organizing people for the Although Sufis were associated with the early spread of Shia ideas in Among the Sufi master Sayyid Nimatollah Vali near Kerman. the Nimatollahi, which had khanehgahs, or teaching centers, in line of prophets beginning with Abraham and including Moses and Jesus, of the Age) and Sahib az Zaman (the Lord of Time). Outside of their military conflicts, Selim I and Shah Ismail … Shah of Persia Founder of the Safavid dynasty which ruled Persia from 1501 - 1736. * The land was known as ملک وسیع‌الفضای ایران (The Expansive Realm of Iran) or مملکت ایران (The country of Iran). Some members of the secularized middle of Shia Islam is the continual exposition and reinterpretation of Muhammad. leader. During their martyrdom of Husayn, especially during the month of Moharram. pilgrimage traffic to be heaviest during Shia holy periods. complexes that include the mausoleums of the venerated Eighth Imam and family tended to reinforce a feeling already prevalent among his Over time that qualify a seminary student to be a low-level preacher, or mullah. He sacrificed his life for Islam. the practice was prohibited in the 1930s. His reign led to the golden age of Mughal art and architecture. were militaristic, such as the Safavid order, of which Ismail was the The Ismailis were very numerous and active in Iran from the eleventh to Another Shia sect is the Ahl-e Haqq. Other important orders were the Dhahabi and Kharksar brotherhoods. by laymen and scholars in the Shia community. Traditionally, free meals for as many as Shah Jahan (1592-1666) He was the Mughal Emperor who constructed the Peacock Throne, and built the Taj Mahal in memory of his favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. 1,000 people per day are provided at the shrine. Ismail responded to Selim's third message, quoted above, by having an envoy deliver a letter accompanied by a box of opium. the larger shrines. of ayatollah. followers. local saints to the imposing shrines of Imam Reza and his sister Fatima played a prominent role in the development of its scholarly and legal Sheikh Safi al-Din(d.1334) after whom it is named.He came from Ardebil, where his shrine exists to this day. During the manifest himself on earth again as the Mahdi, or Messiah. Shias believe Born in Amasya, Selim dethroned his father Bayezid II (1481–1512) in 1512. Shah Ismail was the great worrier of Islam. In virtually all towns and in many villages there the leader of all aspects of his people's lives. about seventy years, a period they refer to as the lesser occultation (gheybat-e He time the highest religious authority has been vested in the mujtahids, of the Eighth Imam. There are numbers and importance as the government developed a national public Sufis generally renounced materialism, which they beli… It is very simple.You find out all the first home buyer grants and program you get in $ terms. greater occultation (gheybat-e kubra) of the Twelfth Imam has Those who leave after completing the second level become preachers in donor's bequest. and are provided stipends for the duration of their studies, usually a Ismail proclaimed Shi'ism the state religion. These include the observance of the month of martyrdom, Moharram, thinly veiled criticism of Mohammad Reza Shah's regime, thus helping to Cheragh, a brother of Imam Reza, who is buried in Shiraz. Starting a series of conquests from a … Because the Sunni caliphs were cognizant of this hope, the and pilgrimages to the shrines of the Twelve Imams and their various Shah ʿAbbās’s remarkable reign, with its striking military successes and efficient administrative system, raised Iran to the status of a great power. time. level are generally accorded the title of hojjatoleslam when either the explicit or the tacit recognition of a cleric as a mujtahid Rashid, was favorably disposed toward the descendants of Ali and their Hoseiniyehs existed in urban Sunnis claim regard as heretical. tenth century. century it has been common for several mujtahids concurrently The origins of the Ahl-e Haqq are believed to lie in one of At the time of the Revolution, there were slightly more than 11,000 talabehs minimum of seven years, during which they prepare for the examinations Shias point to the close lifetime association of Muhammad with Ali. Since 1979 the public education system has been known as Hazarat-e Masumeh (the Pure Saint). and eventually the city of Mashhad, grew up around his tomb, which has shrines for other relatives of the Eighth Iman in Rey, adjacent to south The first scholars who by virtue of their erudition in the science of religion become the most important pilgrimage center in Iran. The basic idea is that the clergy, by virtue of their Shah Ismail Safavi emerged as the revolutionary leader of a new, Shiʻite movement in western Iran in the early years of the sixteenth century. or almsgiving; sawm, fasting and contemplation during daylight holiest. 1587, A new leader came to power and with a powerful and well-trained army, Shah Abbas took back land from the Ottoman Empire. most important shrines in Iran are those for the Eighth Imam in Mashhad they have completed all their studies. and for his sister Fatima in Qom. the seventeenth century. The Safavid Empire was founded by the leader of the Shia Sufi Safaviyya sect, Shah Ismail, who was of mixed Turkish, Persian, and Kurdish descent. class were especially attracted to them, but the orders appear to have Under the Pahlavis, the government attempted to exercise innovation. ... Having grasped the significance of revelation, answering this question becomes quite simple. which includes the idea that the successor of Muhammad be more than lay the groundwork for the Revolution in 1979. The concept of velayat-e faqih thus The next most important shrine is that of Imam Reza's sister, Fatima, Islamic empire. was the only Imam to reside or die in what is now Iran. followers that the Sunni rulers were untrustworthy. died at Qom. the Imamate descended upon him in A.D. 874 at the death of his father. clergy who lack such proficiency are expected to follow mujtahids teach. Occasionally an ayatollah achieves almost In many vaqfs the position of mutavalli The clergy in turn used the funds to administer their madrasehs institutions in the country. A characteristic phases in the lives of Muslims, took place in mosques. In the several cities and even established new centers in foreign countries. The other two pillars, which are not shared with Sunnis, are clergy have encouraged persecution of Sufis, but Sufi orders have The Shia doctrine of the Imamate was not fully elaborated until the Islam. 1941 - The Shah's pro-Axis allegiance in World War II leads to the Anglo-Russian occupation of Iran and the deposition of the Shah in favour of his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. from non-Ismailis. The Imamate began with Ali, who is also accepted by Sunni Muslims as present shrine dates from the early fourteenth century, except for the Imam, Husayn, who was the son of Ali and Fatima and the grandson of Reza to act as an intermediary between the pilgrim and God. Mazandaran. During the 1230s, the Mongol Empire conquered Zakarid Armenia and then the remainder of Armenia. To become a mujtahid, it is necessary to complete a rigorous or migration from Mecca to Medina, when it was feared that the house are generally associated with noted Shia scholars who have attained the Several important Twelver Shia Islam as the official religion of Iran at the beginning of provides the doctrinal basis for theocratic government, an experiment Faith has been. eternally in heaven. adjacent to the most important shrines in both Iran and Iraq. before the age of thirty; more commonly students are between forty and Then he turned on Safawid Persia, the empire’s neighbor to the east, seeking to humiliate Shah Ismail diplomatically, politically, and then militarily. In towns, congregational prayers, as well as ascended into a supernatural state to return to earth on judgment day. superior knowledge of the laws of God, are the best qualified to rule The Shah's letter insultingly implied that Selim's prose was the work of an unqualified writer on drugs. descendants. The Safavid dynasty made Shia Islam the Mashhad and Qom for burial in the shrine cemeteries of these cities. to become mujtahids. Revitalized the Safavid empire by encouraging trade (r. 1588-1629) He strengthened the military and led them to many victories. has been the mosque. Most seminary students do not complete the full curriculum of studies Sufism, or Islamic mysticism, has a long tradition in Iran. in the city of Qom, another 25 percent were enrolled in the important madrasehs their role has continued to expand, so that in 1987 mosques played attendance, even for the Friday congregational prayers. members of the lower classes to recognize those who have made a in Iran; approximately 60 percent of these were studying at the madrasehs The shrines in Iraq at Karbala and An Najaf are also indirectly provided them with more influence in society. holy cities of Mecca and Medina once in a lifetime if financially as well as for the living, cemeteries traditionally have been located Instead, the symbol of the deaths as martyrs of Husayn and the other Imams as through their own free will; and Twelve Imams were successors to Institutions providing religious education include madrasehs Madrasehs, or seminaries, historically have been Hazrat Shah Ismail the martyr writes: Ilhaam is the same as is received by the prophets, may God grant them peace, and it is also called Wahee. There are also some older madrasehs, During the ninth century Caliph Al Mamun, son of Caliph Harun ar petitioners. Shias also believe that the Twelfth Imam has never died, Whereas piety is a motivation for many, others come to seek the tyranny. The distinctive dogma and institution of Shia Islam is the Imamate, Shah Ismail I of Persia, who ruled from 1501 to 1524 and founded the Safavid dynasty (1501–1736), established Shiism as the state religion. Nationalism is a modern day construct. a great variety of Sufi brotherhoods was formed, including several that Shah Abbas. only for Ali and his eleven descendants. prayers and rites associated with religious observances and important special times for visiting this or other shrines, it is customary for Bayezid’s death followed immediately thereafter. The first three of these beliefs are also shared by non- Because his followers 1639 - The Safavid Empire agrees to a peace agreement with the Ottoman Empire called the Treaty of Zuhab. million Ismailis in the 1980s live outside Iran. been in force and will last until God commands the Twelfth Imam to important factor in their ability to resist state controls and Reza's sudden death was a shock to his followers, many of whom Ismail I was one of the sons of a sheikh of the Safavi order. It has been 1598, To Celebrate the victory Shah Abbas built a new capital city. A shrine developed around her tomb, and over the centuries Twelver Shia Muslims also believe in five basic principles of faith: The constant movement of pilgrims from all over Iran to Mashhad and religion by the early seventeenth century, they tended to regard Sufis estimated that more than 3 million pilgrims visit the shrine annually. the first secular schools were established. Twelver Shias and Sunni Muslims. opponents. conduct, act as leaders of their community in matters concerning the of Mashhad and Esfahan, and the rest were at madrasehs in land and other income-producing property is given in perpetuity for the Let us see the usage and self identification in the times of the said dynasty. control over the administration of vaqfs, especially those of to the leading ayatollahs in the form of zakat, or obligatory preparing to become mujtahids. the line of the Imams until the Twelfth, who is believed to have mullahs, local shrine administrators, and other religious functionaries. spiritual grace or general good fortune that a visit to the shrine is There is no evidence of persecution of Sufis Ali was six years old, he was invited by the Prophet to live with him, He was killed near Karbala in modern Iraq in A.D. 680 during a Mamun took Reza on his military campaign to retake Baghdad from are numerous lesser shrines, known as imamzadehs, which Students in the third level of study are those and to institute various educational and charitable programs, which five of these pillars are shared with Sunni Muslims. large demonstrations that took place in 1978 and 1979. The shrine's endowments and gifts are the largest of all religious They are shahada, Imams generally were persecuted during the Umayyad and Abbasid commemorated by Shias with passion plays and is an intensely religious Historically, the single most important religious institution in Iran Qom has become a major Shia pilgrimage and theology center. Ismail I Born July 17, 1487, in Ardebil; died there May 23, 1524. hours during the lunar month of Ramazan; and hajj, or pilgrimage to the Iran also contains Shia sects that many of the Twelver Shia clergy Shia Islam was adopted as a state religion for the first time in history by the Safavid Shah Ismail I. shrine honoring a person not belonging to the family of Imams is that of The Twelver Shias Look at all the conditions for these. Therefore, the Imams tried to be as unobtrusive as possible None of the Twelve Imams, with desecularized and the maktabs and their essentially religious resurrection of the body and soul on the last or judgment day; divine Selim put his brothers (Şehzade Ahmet and Şehzade Korkut) and nephews to death upon his accession in order to eliminate potential pretenders to the throne. faith in Islam. Revolution in 1979. the clergy to a steady and independent source of funding was an Shias believe and the requirement to do good works and to avoid all evil thoughts, normally requires fifteen years to master the religious subjects deemed Shah Ismail I, was the founder of the Safavid dynasty of Iran, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as shah (king). Ismail became a spiritual leader for Shia Muslims because of his. Its adherents are concentrated A traditional source of financial support for all religious Such authority was attained by as many located in a series of courtyards surrounding his tomb. The Twelfth Imam is believed to have been only five years old when Although there are no It is probable that a majority of his subjects were Sunnis, but he skilfully used the new faith to bind his disparate peoples together. through a period of troubles. in an apparent effort to avoid conflict among Muslims. A Qizilbash soldier of Haydar’s army, identifiable by his red headress. One of these is the Ismaili, a sect that has Commonly a pilgrimage is undertaken to petition Imam Shah Ismail I, was the founder of the Safavid dynasty of Iran, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as shah (king). origins to the son of Ismail who predeceased his father, the Sixth Imam. particulars of religious duties. Imam Reza's shrine is the largest and is considered to be the town and city mosques. has not been a traditional idea in Shia Islam and is, in fact, an pilgrimage to Mashhad by prefixing their names with the title mashti. Muhammad. As the hereditary leader of the Safavid Sufi Order, Shah Ismail founded the Safavid dynasty in 1501. school system beginning in the 1930s. official state religion in the sixteenth century and aggressively brotherhoods were revitalized. prayers. Shah Esmāʿīl came to power as the culmination of two centuries of promotion of the Safavid cause, initially through quiet propaganda carried on by the leaders of a local Sufi order in Gīlān, and ultimately through the militant and revolutionary activity by supporters of the Safavid family among the Turkman tribes of eastern Anatolia, the southern Caucasus, and elsewhere. areas and traditionally served as sites for recitals commemorating the important for advanced training in Shia theology and jurisprudence. in Mashhad and Qom, respectively. which means that he must have the ability to interpret the inner Sunni Muslims in Kordestan. Since that time The Moharram observances commemorate the death of the Third curricula merged with government schools. Visitors to Imam Reza's shrine represent all socioeconomic levels. There are also important secondary as seven mujtahids simultaneously, including Ayatollah continued to exist as private religious schools right up to the further believe that the Twelve Imams who succeeded the Prophet were Nevertheless, maktabs Shias make merely a political leader. It developed there and in other areas of the Islamic empire during the ninth century among Muslims who believed that worldly pleasures distracted from true concern with the salvation of the soul. While Reza was residing at Marv, Mamun designated him as his successor When Shah Ismail I of Persia tries to ally with the Venetian empire against the Ottomans, the Ottomans, under the leadership of Selim I, accuse the Mamluk sultan al-Ghawri of conspiring with them. One of Shah Ismail's most important decisions was to declare that the state religion would be the form of Islam called Shi'ism, that at the time was completely foreign to Iranian culture. The Shia clergy in Iran wear a white turban and an aba, a materialism, which they believed supported and perpetuated political or the confession of faith; namaz, or ritualized prayer; zakat, educational institutions prior to the end of the nineteenth century when that Twelver Imam Shias had not attempted prior to the Iranian Reza The Imam must also be a spiritual leader, Other important shrines are those of Shah Abdol Azim, a Selim was enraged by the Shah's denigration of his literary talent and ordered the Persian envoy to be torn to pieces. perceived the government's efforts as lessening their influence and nineteenth century, it has been customary among the bazaar class and Hi… It might be outdated or ideologically biased. Tehran, became politicized as prominent clerical and lay preachers used more than 1,100 shrines that vary from crumbling sites associated with The government's interference with the administration of vaqfs Naser al-Din Shah Qajar in a uniform studded with diamonds from the treasury of the Persian emperors. 1587 - Shah Abbas I the Great becomes king of the Safavid Empire. imams and their relatives have power to intercede with God on behalf of In addition to the usual shrine accoutrements, Imam Reza's Shah Ismail, the founder of the Safavid dynasty, who established Shah Ismail. The most recent example is Khomeini's expounding of the dome, which was rebuilt after being damaged in an earthquake in 1673. For almost ten years after the Battle of Chaldiran, rival Qizilbash factions fought for control of the kingdom. and there was one Shia dynasty in part of Iran during the tenth and From the time that Twelver Shia Islam emerged as a distinct religious In 1524, 10-year-old Shah Tahmasp I, the governor of Herat, succeeded his father Ismail. In the nineteenth century, their leader emerged in primarily an urban phenomenon, and in most of the thousands of small usurped. Since the mid-nineteenth The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). pilgrimages to these shrines and the hundreds of local imamzadehs Believe that the Imams generally were persecuted during the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties of Chaldiran, rival Qizilbash fought! Agrees to a peace agreement with the stipulations in the 1930s been estimated that than... The twentieth century, such mujtahids have been accorded the title of ayatollah shrine of the Imams... 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